The composition of the baby skin

During pregnancy, the baby is protected by the amniotic liquid which is isotonic and sterile. At birth, the baby is protected by a fat substance covering the skin, protecting the baby from the environment. This protection disappears a few days after the delivery and the baby skin becomes drier.

The skin is composed of different layers/strata: epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis. Epidermis is the most superficial layer, between the extern and intern environment. The dermis is behind, it’s a nutritive strata which permit the temperature regulation and avoid infection and attack against the skin. Hypodermis is a transition area between skin and intern sterile environment.

These 3 cells stratas are present on the baby’s skin but less developed than in adult skin. Some cells or glands are not mature yet. The baby’s skin is thin and very permeable. The skin is poor of microorganisms, so it cannot fight against the harmful external environment. Chemicals substances and toxic microorganisms could get inside the skin easily.

The skin functions

The skin is an organ with different functions

  • To protect the body from external environment (chemicals agent, UV, micro-organisms), it’s an essential immune organ.
  • To regulate the temperature
  • To secrete sebum and sweat from sebaceous and sweat glands to preserve the intern environment
  • To respond to sensorial stimuli like temperature, pain etc

Skin problem on new born

Because of its undeveloped skin, some of these functions are not ready to be use by the baby. This, creates some normal problems on newborns:

- Skin irritation: when the protective film covering the baby disappears their skin becomes more dry and fragile. So, it’s important to feed the skin with a moisturizing cream adapted to the baby’s skin.

- The baby skin is sensitive, especially on their bottom. The contact of the nappy/diaper, urine and faeces can develop irritation. It’s important to change their nappy very often to dry and moisturize his skin with baby products.

- UV sensibility Melanocytes, epidermis cells, are very not developed on babies. These cells have melanin, pigment responsible for skin colour. Theses pigments protect the skin from the UV. On the baby’s skin there is only a few melanocytes that is why it’s very important to protect children from the sun by wearing t-shirts, hats, and baby sun care.

- Milk crust: An over production of sebum agglutinate with dead cells on skin surface create milk crust. They use to be on the scalp and also on other body parts ( face, nose…). This is not painfull for the kid. It’s important to clean that because it’s a good environment for the bacteria development.

How to take care ?

The baby skin will become more mature. It takes only months. During this development you need to preserve the baby from the external environment.

The rate skin/weight is higher on a baby than on a adult. So when we use a product on a baby skin, the concentration absorbed is more important on a baby than on an adult. That’s why baby need specific care products with natural ingredients, without allergen and less ingredients as possible. Baby skin flora is poor. It is essential to favour moisturizing to maintain the flora and to be careful with acid products which facilitate proliferation of bacteria.

Products made with Thermale springwater from Castéra are products which can protect baby skin from external attacks. It could be use everyday to regulate the skin flora.


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